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冬天里的热带天堂-夏威夷十二天自驾游-大岛(1)

作者:夏日的鸢尾花 (2010-02-12 )      文章来源:天涯博客

第四天,大岛, 从科纳到希洛
  
  大岛,至少有两个特征,足以使它和其他夏威夷诸岛区别开。第一,大岛很大,比其他夏威夷岛屿的面积总和还要大一倍,而且随着火山的喷发还在不断变大。第二,大岛还有活火山,而且现在还在不断的喷发。只凭着它的第二个特点,去大岛的理由就足够充分了。
  
  夏威夷旅游局的网站列出了下列5项在大岛应该做的比较cool的事情:
  1。 Stargaze atop the tranquil summit of mount Mauna Kea.
  在Mauna Kea(注:岛上的一座死火山,海拔四千多米)山顶观星
  2。 Take a scenic drive down the lush Hamaukua Coast.
  驱车经过北岸葱茏的Hamaukua Coast
  3。 Step back in time for a glimpse at ancient Hawaiian culture at Puuhonua o Honaunau National Historic Park on the Kona Coast.
  在科纳海岸的Puuhonua o Honaunau国家历史公园看一眼古夏威夷文化,感受时光流转
  4。 Sunbathe on the white sand beaches of Hapuna Beach State Park.
  在Hapuna海滩州立公园的白沙滩上享受日光浴
  5。 Walk through the 400 foot Thurston Lava tube and view Kilauea at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.
  在夏威夷火山国家公园看Kilauea 火山,走过400英尺的Thurston 火山熔岩通道
  
  上述5件事,除了第一项之外,都很容易做到,而且乐趣多多。
  
  如果要我再加上一项的话,就是尽情的吃大岛出产的夏威夷木瓜,真是木瓜之极品。

   从瓦胡(檀香山机场)飞大岛的航班很多。大岛有两个机场,科纳(Kona)和希洛,其中科纳还是国际机场。我选择了早晨8:45的飞机飞科纳,9:25分就到达了。机票两个人是98美元。
  
  选择飞科纳而不是希洛的原因很简单。我们下一个要去的岛是茂易,只有科纳有直飞茂易的飞机,从希洛飞还要到檀香山转机。而我们要从priceline.com上bid租车,不能异地还车。这样,定下来从檀香山飞科纳,从科纳飞茂易,而我们在大岛则是以科纳为起点和终点,进行一次环岛游,第一天晚上就住在希洛了。
  
  科纳的机场看起来比其他几个岛都要小。候机大厅实际上是一个个凉棚,经过的时候发现上面挂着号码,原来一个个凉棚就是登记口。
 
      也许因为大岛在夏威夷岛屿中纬度最低,也许因为科纳这一面是有名的阳光海岸,降水很少,一下飞机,感觉比瓦胡岛热了不少。      而开车驶出机场一看,这里的地貌真特别。没有瓦胡岛的青山秀水,这里一片蛮荒苍凉的景象。网上说,有人一下飞机看到这种景色很失望,想我飞了一路就为了这个?我早有心理预期,并且觉得这样的景色也是一种独特的美。 其实这片黑黢黢的大地不应该被视为世界末日的景象。实际上,随着时间的推移,凝固的火山熔岩会被风化,最后变成适合植物生长的肥沃土壤。这开在火山熔岩上鲜艳的花儿,就预言着这片土地美丽的明天。 这片海岸称为科纳海岸。下面是从夏威夷旅游网站上摘抄来的信息。      KONA COAST      The sunny Kona coastline stretches from Kailua-Kona to beyond Kealakekua Bay and can take more than 45 minutes to drive through. Within this expansive area you’ll find everything from Kona Coffee farms to historic Hawaiian landmarks.      In fact, the Kona coast was once the home of Hawaiian royalty. King Kamehameha himself spent his later years in Kailua-Kona. Significant historic places like Puuhonua o Honaunau, Hulihee Palace, and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historic Park let you explore Hawaii’s past first-hand.      South Kona’s calm and clear waters are also perfect for snorkeling, diving, and spotting dolphins and honu (green sea turtles). On land, the cooler uplands are home to hundreds of coffee plantations where you can sample Kona’s unique, aromatic bean. On the versatile Kona coast, the adventures are as big as the island itself.      大岛的南部海岸会带给您一种全然不同的感受,可纳市(Kona)外围上坡地上的农业区域是世界上几处生产上好咖啡的地方。如果您开车经过可纳咖啡园区(Kona Coffee Country),您会看到提供导览与品尝咖啡样品的庄园。您可以从可纳往南到卡乌(Ka’u)区域,这里曾经有许多小型家庭式种植咖啡的农庄。但现在则逐渐由广大的高价值火山豆果果树园所取代。由于这个区域比起岛上任何一个地区都来的干燥,所以地形及植物分布都有很明显的改变:您不仅会经过热带森林保育区和果树园栽培区,也会看到酪农场和广阔的田地,那儿曾经是蔗糖生产区域,现在已改为种植小巧多样化的各式农作物。  
    这是沿途经过的一个小镇。本来计划早晨买上两块三明治,可以一直带到火山国家公园吃,但是没有找到Starbucks,在小镇的零售商店也没有找到什么能引起人食欲的东西。和瓦胡比起来,这一片地区好像是个大农村。 按照我事先作的研究,我们看到160号公路就右转下去了,这条公路应该经过Kealakekua Bay 和 Puuhonua O Honaunau 国家历史公园.      Kealakekua Bay 之所以出名,是因为这是著名的英国航海探险家James Cook被刺身亡之地。   
     下面应该还是夏威夷旅游网站上的信息。       One of Hawaii’s most infamous historical spots is Kealakekua Bay, where Captain James Cook was slain by Hawaiians on February 14, 1779, after a long and complicated voyage to discover new land for the British empire. The bay is now a Marine Life Conservation District and is equally famous for its remarkably clear water and plethora of marine life, including Hawaiian green sea turtles (honu) and spinner dolphins. It’s a must-do for any snorkeler or kayaker, and for equestrians too. 可是这条路又破又偏,开到一半的时候连手拿地图一直坚信我们没有走错的我都动摇了。动用了老公的GPS,察看了我们所在的路,没有错。没有想到这条路这么破,浪费了我们不少时间。      一直开到头,是一个看起来像是民用船码头的地方。只好向旁边的当地人求助,他们看起来好像经常碰到我们这样的人,上来就问,去海湾还是去公园?原来海湾和公园还在两个不同的方向。我们时间不够充裕,就一直向着公园开过去了。      沿途的收获,就是拍了几张路边的植物.
即使你来夏威夷就是为了享受阳光海滩看风景,如果到了大岛还是要去一下PUUHONUA O HONAUNAU 国家历史公园。不说它的历史意义,那里的自然风光也不错。而且我们在那里还近距离的看到了夏威夷绿海龟。      下面的信息,应该是来自夏威夷旅游网站和美国国家公园网站。      在基督教传来大岛之前的夏威夷文明世代,这曾经是个败军将士避难的庇护所。现在已被重新整理修复到原有17世纪时的外观。      Hawaii’s Big Island is famous for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, but there’s another national park worth planning the better part of a day around: Puuhonua o Honaunau, or the Place of Refuge. In ancient times, this serene spot was a safe haven for Hawaiians who had broken one of the strict kapu (taboos) punishable by death. Today it’s a safe haven for anyone seeking peace, and a sense of place. There are heiau (temples), and the Hale o Keawe, where the bones of past chiefs imbue the area with their mana (power). You might get lucky and see a cultural demonstration, but if not, incredible snorkeling is available nearby at Two Step when conditions are favorable. Insider’s tip: Stick around for sunset. Some of the most vivid occur at Puuhonua o Honaunau, and the park’s seaside picnic tables offer the best seats.      Located on Honaunau Bay in south Kona, Puuhonua o Honaunau immerses you in ancient Hawaiian culture. This 180-acre national historic park was once a place of refuge for ancient Hawaiian lawbreakers.      Kapu, or sacred laws, were of utmost importance to Hawaiian culture and the breaking of kapu could mean death. A kapu-breaker’s only chance for survival was to evade his pursuers and make it to a puuhonua, or a sacred place of refuge. Once there, a ceremony of absolution would take place and the law-breaker would be able to return to society.      Hundreds of years old yet beautifully restored, Puuhonua o Honaunau is one of Hawaii’s most sacred historic places. Take a walking tour and explore the grounds including the Great Wall, standing 10 feet high and 17 feet thick. Fierce kii, or wooden images of gods, guard the Hale o Keawe Heiau, a sacred temple that housed the bones of 23 alii, or chiefs. A black lava rock shoreline hindered kapu-breakers from approaching by sea.      Beyond the puuhonua, explore the nearby Royal Grounds, which were the sacred home of alii (chiefs). See Keoneele Cove, the royal canoe landing, as well as heiau (sacred place of worship), halau (thatched huts), and fishponds. Beautiful at sunset, this sacred place gives visitors an important glimpse into ancient Hawaiian culture.
触犯Kapu(戒律)之后,如果能够到达前方的神庙,则可免于一死.
海边的木雕
神庙
这一片黑色的火山熔岩,一直延伸到海中
这一片海滩水浅且平静,经常可以看见夏威夷绿海龟在晒太阳      绿海龟并不是绿色的。据说它的血液是绿的,因为它们吃很多绿海藻。      夏威夷有很严格的保护动物的法律规定。 见到这么一只绿海龟,大家只敢 小心翼翼的接近它,但是没有人敢去碰它。
这应该是一种流淌比较迅速的火山熔岩,凝结之后的表面还算平滑。另一种流动缓慢的火山熔岩,凝结之后的表面则凹凸不平,有的还有棱角
转了一圈,这只海龟还在这里。这是我们唯一一次看到海龟趴在岸上,离它很近。不过这只海龟不算大的。后面我们看到在水里游泳的海龟,个头比这只大的多了。
这个国家历史公园虽然收费,但是并不贵,一个车才5美元。      我们在这里转了半个小时,便继续上路。      因为没有买三明治做午餐,到了中午我们只好在路边找了一个看起来还过得去的餐馆吃了午饭。除了我们点的这两份正餐,我还要了个墨西哥玉米片配Salsa酱。好吃的Salsa酱非常的爽口,但是这家餐馆的Salsa酱好像是罐头里出来的一样。      这餐午饭也并不便宜,因为在这么前不着村后不着店的地方只有这么一家餐馆。
吃完午饭继续上路。开始路边还有稀稀疏疏的灌木,再开了一会儿周围变成了一片广袤的黑色大地。可能很少会有人觉得这种景色美,不过它是大岛的独特地貌之一。
如果不喜欢这一片似世界末日的景象,就尽管向前开吧。穿过黑色的大地,前方又出现了鲜花,牧场和树林。
全美的校车都一样
沿途我们还经过去South Point的路。这条路通向大岛的最南端,同时也是美国50个州的最南端。从那里沿着岩石下到海滩,可以看见罕见的绿沙滩。如果我们去那里,在火山公园的时间就有些仓促了。老公也说我们又不是美国人,去美国最南端没有什么意义。踩了一脚油门我们便绝尘而去。
转过大岛的南端,我们又开始向北行驶      大岛的火山称为盾形火山,这是由于长期的缓慢的喷发形成的,有别于剧烈迅速喷发的火山。      从这个路边的观景点,可以远眺前方的黑沙滩
黑沙滩在Punalu’u Beach Park,离主路不远。
如果在夏天,我猜这沙子的热度恐怕会让人难以忍受
让我们在大岛租的车露一脸儿,这是道奇的公牛,马力十足,不过很吃油
上面这辆车,从priceline.com bid到的,三天加上税费101元,在大岛油花了53元,和在茂宜花的油钱差不多。      下一站,则是这一天的重点,火山国家公园了。      下面应该还是夏威夷旅游网站提供的信息:      HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK GUIDE      There are currently three active volcanoes in Hawaii. On Hawaii’s Big Island you’ll find Mauna Loa and Kilauea in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.   目前在夏威夷有三座活火山。在大岛上你会在火山国家公园看到Mauna Loa and Kilauea。      Mauna Loa last erupted in 1984 and Kilauea has been continuously erupting since 1983.   Mauna Loa 最后一次喷发是在1984年,Kilauea 从1983年以来一直在不断的喷发.      Loihi is located underwater off the southern coast of Hawaii’s Big Island. Erupting since 1996, this emerging land mass may break the surface in about 250,000 years, adding a ninth island to the Hawaiian chain.   大岛南边海底一座新火山Loihi从1996年开始喷发。在250000年内它可能会冲出海平面,为火山岛链增加一座新岛,成为第九座岛。      Today, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is Hawaii’s #1 visitor attraction. This 377 square mile park on Hawaii’s Big Island is a living museum where visitors can witness the power of Hawaii’s volcanoes in surprisingly intimate ways. You’ll feel great mana, or spiritual power, here as you hike along rocky trails and desolate deserts that in time will flourish and thrive with new life.      Watch the landscape change before your very eyes at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Located 30 miles southwest of Hilo, this is the home of Kilauea Volcano, one of the most active volcanoes on earth. The chance to witness the primal process of destruction and creation make this park the most popular visitor attraction in Hawaii and a sacred place for native Hawaiians.      Founded in 1916, the Park encompasses 333,000 acres from the summit of Mauna Loa to the sea. Here you’ll find 150 miles of hiking trails through volcanic craters, scalded deserts, and rainforests as well as a museum, petroglyphs, a walk-in lava tube, and two active volcanoes: Mauna Loa, which last erupted in 1984 and Kilauea which has been erupting since January 3rd, 1983.      Kilauea is sometimes called "the world’s only drive-in volcano." This prolific volcano currently produces 250,000-650,000 cubic yards of lava per day, enough to resurface a 20-mile-long, two-lane road daily. As of January 1994, 491 acres of new land have been created on Hawaii’s Big Island. But the chance to watch Kilauea’s blistering lava flows meet the sea is just one of the reasons to visit. 245#回复 作者:werwr467 回复日期:2010-1-12 13:16:00   Founded in 1916, the Park encompasses 333,000 acres from the summit of Mauna Loa to the sea. Here you’ll find 150 miles of hiking trails through volcanic craters, scalded deserts, and rainforests as well as a museum, petroglyphs, a walk-in lava tube, and two active volcanoes: Mauna Loa, which last erupted in 1984 and Kilauea which has been erupting since January 3rd, 1983. 下面的信息应该是来自于火山公园的网页      KILAUEA VISITOR CENTER访客中心      Begin your visit at the Kilauea Visitor Center where you can watch an hourly film from 9 am to 4 pm to introduce you to the park. Ranger talks are offered and ranger-guided activities can be scheduled. Pick up maps and learn about the park’s hikes here.   在这里每天早九点到下午4点逢整点会播放一部短片,大概半个小时左右。在这里可以拿到最新的地图,了解火山的最新动态。      VOLCANO HOUSE火山客栈      The Volcano House hotel overlooking Kilauea has been operating since it was a grass shack in 1846. Even Mark Twain once stayed here on his visit to Hawaii. The fire in the lava rock fireplace has been continually burning since 1877.   火山客栈可俯瞰Kilauea火山口。在1846年开始营业,当然那是不过是个草屋。马克土温曾经住过这里(从此留下了点名人仙气)。熔岩壁炉里面的火从1877年开始从没有熄灭过。      我曾经考虑过晚上是否住在这里,但是听说房间设施很简陋,价格也不便宜,便作罢了。

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